Quite often in everyday life, we meet with such a concept as "metises" originating from the French word Misticius, that is, "mixed".
Metis is a child born in an interethnic marriage, which implies not only the confusion of representatives of different races, but also a very controversial interest from the Company, in which "burly" many opinions and statements. What is the phenomenon of metis?
How did the methuses appear?
For reference: There are three races: the Negroid, inhabited by Africa, the Mongoloid - America and Asia, as well as the Europeanoid - dwelling in Europe. So, historically, the process of mixing races ("metication") arose due to slave-owned trade, as well as resettlement of people from some continents and countries to others.
To date, any mixed type of appearance is called marchs whose parents are representatives of different nationalities and peoples, as well as the most components of the population in South America, Central Asia and the Western Hemisphere.
Blood mixing - plus for intelligence?
Previously it was assumed that the mixture of blood would not be good for anything good due to the high probability of all sorts of dangerous mutations, in which the child can be born inferior and with a number of diseases. After the expiration of long research, scientists came to the conclusion that such fears are in vain, because anything, except pronounced external indicators, these people do not differ from ordinary purebred races.
Moreover, the time has shown, methuses are more enduring and strong physically. They seek great success in the drastically different fields of activity, thanks to their innate qualities and external data, which nature was given by nature.
And at the genetic level, this leads to a healthier and strong offspring, as a result of which talented and even brilliant children are born. The greater the diverse features are combined in the child, the higher the chance that the strongest, the best (dominant) signs prevail over weak (recessive), having endowed the child with great potential.
What is so special in these people attracting our eyes with their extraordinary views? Without a doubt, they are their pronounced extraordinary appearance, thanks to which they always and everywhere are noticeable. As a result of "bleeding" to the light appear extraordinary beauty, children standing out against the background of other people with their individual feature: an expressive feature of the face, almond, blue eyes, chubby lips, dark color of the skin and magnificent, thick, dark hair.
In such an appearance, we definitely have a certain charm inherent in everyone, therefore, methots belong to the most beautiful layers of the world population, and this statement will not surprise anyone. After all, among them there are so many well-known and influential, creatively gifted, sports and unusually smart, successful people: Inca Garsilaso de la Vega, Gaston Zherville-Resas, Kaliba Starnes, Barack Obama other.
Also among representatives of methots many popular fashion models, movie stars and artists, such as Shakira, Beyonce, Enrique Iglesias, Angelina Jolie, Salma Hayek, Jessica Alba And many other stars of world show business.
Of course, every country can be proud of its excellent representatives, but as for the methots, it is unlikely that someone will argue about the charming and magical effect of their external data, although this is as they say, the "taste".
In the light of social, political and ethnic problems, the question of who is so metis often arises. Man whose blood has Indian and European "roots", or the one who belongs to the countries of hot Africa? There are two answers to this question, and each of them will be disclosed in the article. It is worth noting that, despite the strictness, which the modern politicians love adhere to adhere to, more than one fifth of the population of the Earth today are not "pure" representatives of a certain race. So, let's start clarification and try to understand who is so metis.
The man born from the American Indian and the representative of the Negroid race is called "Metis". This is the majority of typical mexicans, residents of Antille, Dominican Republic and South America. Representatives of this mixed race are found in the United States (California), as well as in some southern regions of the country. The blood of these people has Spanish roots and Indian, therefore, it gives their own owners of dark skin, expressive eyes, dark hair. These are the main signs that are characterized by typical methis.
A man born from parents - representatives of various racial groups, and today is also considered a methome. As examples of such marriages, you can bring the Union of Asian and the Europeanioid, Negro and Indian, Core and Indian and Indian and so on. Based on this, it turns out that the "metisas" is called all people, in whose veins the blood flows various races. Of course, the child from the marriage of the Englishman and Frenchwoman in this category is not included. In this case, their baby is simply an intememental subject of society, but not metis. The man of mixed blood, as a rule, has a pronounced appearance, in which the features of both parents are connected.
However, it happens that it is impossible to identify the presence of alien blood by appearance. We are accustomed that the overwhelming majority of methots live in the southern hemisphere, but forget about the marriages of Europeans and Asians. Children of such parents may have a completely inconspicuous appearance only with a small "hint of the East." Or maybe the opposite - the child will inherit the black narrow eyes of one of the parents, dense straight hair, facial expressions.
Most often, the features of such heights are manifested in early years. Children-metis (photos are listed in the article) have a very bright, expressive appearance. In a small leaning, it is preferably all the features that are characteristic of both mom and dad. Over the years, man is "nailed" to one of the parties.
The brightest and most beautiful mestys are most of modern movie stars and scenes. Among them can be called Adrian Lima, the Brazilian model, Kendis Svenefol - a model from South Africa, Natalie Portman - actress, in whose veins the Middle Eastern and American blood flows. Among the stars, which in the role of methives it is difficult to imagine, it is worth named Cameron Diaz. In her veins, European and Indian blood flows, despite blue eyes and blonde hair. But Leonardo di Caprio can be considered our compatriot - his grandfather was Russian, and parents, therefore, had Slavic-Indian origin.
Every fifth person - MetisMixing races - a trend, very characteristic of modern humanity. Ethnic problems are becoming increasingly important because they affect the issues related both to the human biology and the problems of its social development and politics. Anthropologists argue that at least 1/5 part of the world's population is methis. So who are they - metis?
Maybe we are all in one way or another? The word "metis" ( Metis. ) Translated from French - a mixture, the mixture, it denotes a man of mixed origin. The second, narrower value is a mix of the European and American Indian. Moutiles are born from the Negro and Europeans, and the offspring of the Negro and the American Indian is called Sambo. In the future, of course, it will be about marching in a broader sense of the word, i.e. About people born from parents of different races, well distinguishable in biological grounds. There are so-called big races, since the marriage between, say, the Ukrainian and Russian or Englishman and German will be simply interethnic, and they will not be married children. But marriages between the Europeanoids and the Mongoloids, Mongoloids and Negroides, the Europeanis and Negoruds are considered to be meticible - these groups differ significantly from each other as in appearance and for a number of other signs.
What is nationality and racial?
We closely approached the need to clarify the terminology. Nationality is determined by three basic parameters.
The race is a community category characterized by the similarity of the methods of populations constituting the race, and the presence of a certain geographical range of occurrence and distribution. Traditionally, three main races are distinguished: European views (or Eurasian Race), Negorids (Equatorials) and Mongoloids
Race as such is not only in humans, but also in animals - raven, wolves. All of them (in contrast to breeds of cats, dogs) of natural origin. A person in nature is very polymorphic and politicized, at him, unlike pets, did not affect artificial selection. Races differ not only on external signs, but also geographically, i.e. Any race in its formation has a separate habitat. There are also deeper racial signs, such as blood groups. Molecular biology gives a colossal material to study the string of genome. If we classify races, for example, blood groups or DNA fragments, then both coincidences and differences with the traditional classification by morphological features are possible. But if you increase the number of locuses to determine the so-called "genetic distances", the similarity of both types of classification increases.
Is humanity a single species?
Now there is not a single anthropologist, genetics or biologist, who would doubt it. Moreover, there are no prerequisites that could lead to the formation of a new type of person in the foreseeable future, if only because the globe can be viewed as an isolated system. However, too little time passed on the scale of the universe, to talk about whether the depths of humanity occurs
Consider now the ways of the emergence of methots.
Metisation is directly related to migration processes. In genetics there is the concept of "gene stream", i.e. Slow multiple penetration of two large groups with various morphological features. There are so-called contact zones i.e. Areas where populations have occurred. Such zones, in particular, is Western Siberia (concerns of European and moguloids), North Africa (European and Negorudda),
The development of civilization gave rise to new concepts, for example, "Metis War" - they appear as a result of a sufficiently long stay of the occupation army on a certain territory. So, in Vietnam, for many years former French colonia, a whole generation was born
How the pandemic changed the approaches to the organization of the workspaceIntegration
As for the external data of methots, no disharmony is observed, moreover, they are often very beautiful. Starting from Neolithic, a person stubbornly and successfully engaged in the removal of new animal breeds, but there was always a very strong internal ban on "manifold". Rigidly pubed and marriages between cousins and sisters, not to mention the direct bleeding. Probably, during the accumulation of experience and detecting the undesirable consequences of the inbreeding, there was a gradual elimination of nearby marriages, which secured in a series of generations in the form of harsh prohibitions, which go beyond religious systems. Probably, these taboo were established earlier than the religion was made. A very significant example of Australian aborigines - they created an amazing system of kinship account, where every person knows its origin and, accordingly, who can potentially become his wife. In Siberia, the tradition of knowledge of its genealogy is also preserved in places, designed to exclude nearby marriage. Known an amazing example when
Metis on Earth is much more than we can assume. For example, Cubans, American Indians, almost all the black population of America, and in the southern states mixing less than in the north - a kind of echo of the confrontation of the democratic north and slave-owner south. Matched groups of the Caribbean and Central America are often called Colais. But Polynesians are so kind of a kind of group that they can be allocated in a separate race.
You can learn methis on some "retreat" from canonical traits characteristic of specific races. For example, people are often found in Siberia with all the morphological signs of the Mongoloids - and the blue eyes of Europeans. Another example is the North Africans or black Americans with European features of the face and explicit signs of the Nero-shaped race. In Altai, the mongoloid type is common in combination with noticeable vegetation on the face, which is uncharacteristic for clean Mongoloids - you will never meet the Chinese or Mongol with a volatile beard or lush mustache.
What are the perspective of mankind from the anthropological point of view? Is it possible that
Oddly enough, the science of man as a social and biological creature in the unity of all its aspects practically does not exist.
Ilya carriers / "In the world of science" 1
In the days of the reign of Catherine II in Moscow, there were about 40 restaurants and other institutions. By 1872, their number increased to 653. The saturation of the restaurants was unequal - in the Tver part there were 60, in Prechistenkaya 19, in other areas the number of these institutions hesitated in these limits.
At all times, Moscow was the gastronomic capital of our state. Today, the most fashionable foreign chefs tours here, the metropolitan markets are replete with the most exquisite delicacies, and the choice of restaurants - for every taste and wallet. Over the centuries, Moscow sets culinary fashion. Recall the most famous Moscow restaurants and dishes that were served in them.
Photo 1900 Great Moscow Hotel. To the right edges of the house, in which the Testman was located
"Big Patriceevsky Tavern" (later "Testov Restaurant") in 1868 opened the Moscow merchant Ivan Yakovlevich tests, and he was in the house of Patrikeev (hence the name) in the Okhotny Row.
Known to the entire capital were the test piglets, which were served with porridge. The soup of crayfish with pieces, Botvinya with Belorybitsa, Guryevskaya porridge with fruit, and especially Couplek with twelve fillings were also popular.
But what wrote about Drink Vladimir Gilyarovsky:
"Cold Smirnovka in Ice, English Gorky, Shustovskaya Ryabinovka and Popvein Leve No. 50 near the bottle of Picon were built instantly on the table, Dine with children at the test ...
Many gourmets had been from testov, ordered portions of cold Beluga, salmon or sturgeon with horseradish, baliq, caviar, roasted pig, veal, bumping with a whitewash and dry grated bald, Couplec with a filling of 12 tiers with a murmur liver and bone brains in black oil, Dogs, pie, row with partridge.
After the performance, there was a queue theatrical public. Tests nailed the coat of arms and inscription: "Supplier of the Highest Court. Petersburg to know led by the Great Princes specially came to Moscow to eat the test cancer soup with piers. ".
At the place of the famous Tractor "Hermitage", which was on the pipe area, at the corner of Petrovsky Boulevard and Neglinnaya, during the NEPA Dining-Cafe №21, and then the "House of Peasant" with a hall for 450 places where culturally was held - Value events for peasants who came to Moscow.
Tavern "Hermitage" became famous for the whole world with his dishes. The French cook Lucien Olivier together with the Russian merchant Yakov Pegov built a tavern, in front of the door of which the most expensive horses have stopped. The Frenchman came up with a famous salad, perpetuating his name.
Originally, Olvier invented for his restaurant not at all salad, but a dish called "Mayonnaise from Dichi." For him, fillets of Ryabchikov and Partridges were bored, cut and laid out on the dish, mixing with cubes of jelly from the bird broth. Nearby elegantly, boiled cancer and slices of the tongue were elegable, the provence sauce. And in the center rose a hill of potatoes with pickled roots, decorated with slices of steep eggs.
According to the French cook, the central "slide" was not intended for food, but only for beauty, as an element of a decor of a dish. But soon, Olivier saw that many Russian Nevihe died on the table "mayonnaise from game" immediately stirred with a spoon as a porridge, destroying a carefully thought out design, then lay out on their plates and are glad to eat this mixture.
From what he saw was horrified. But the next day, the inventive Frenchman, in contempt, mixed all the ingredients, abundantly irrigating them with mayonnaise. In creative accounting of the Russian taste, Lucien Olivier was right - the success of the new dish was grandiose!
Restaurant dishes where the chef sacred in the kitchen was prepared at the highest level, responding to the most bizarre taste of gourmets.
Going later in the hands of the trading partnership, without Olivier, "Hermitage" became more luxurious. The complex with a restaurant opened a licented bathhouse, a hotel, a bolly evergreen garden, a magnificent orchestra played on the choir of the White Column Hall.
In the Hall of "Hermitage", a banquet was set on the occasion of the century since the birthday of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin. In his walls, then all live classics of Russia came together.
In 1879, Healthy Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev was honored in Hermitage, in 1890 - Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, and these events became the property of not one Moscow, but also all of Russia. The history of the old "Hermitage" broke out in 1917, when the slogan "comes from the old world!" Was implemented.
The restaurant "Saratov" was located on Sretenka, in different years he belonged to the merchants of Dubrovin and Sevastyanov. Gilyarovsky writes that the landowners from all over Russia, who brought to Moscow to identify their children to schools, considered their doubt to dine with children in Saratov in Dubrovina.
Alexey Akimovich Sudakov (in the photo in the center) began its work in 1875 in the Lost Restaurant. Then he opened his own tavern. Then another, better. And so step by step before buying "Yara"
The Tractor "Yar" was on Christmas in Shavan's house, opened his Frenchman Tranky Yar. Especially this restaurant was famous for Gypsy singing. Listening to the Gypsy Choir Ilya Sokolova was going to all Moscow Bogem.
"Restaurant with a dining and dinner table, all sorts of grape wines and liqueurs, desserts, quilting and tea, with very temperate prices" - wrote the newspaper "Moscow Vedomosti" in 1826.
The restaurant building was repeatedly rebuilt. In July 1896, Yar acquired a former waiter, a leaving of the peasants of the Yaroslavl province Alexey Akimovich Sudakov.
In 1910, on his instructions, the architect Adolf Erichson, a new modern building was built, with large faceted domes, arched windows and monumental metal lamps on the facade.
The restaurant has become very popular among the Russian elite. Among visitors Yara were Sava Morozov, Fedor Plevako, Anton Chekhov, Alexander Kuprin, Maxim Gorky, Fedor Shalyapin, Leonid Andreev, Konstantin Balmont, and Gregory Rasputin.
Inside, a large and small halls were arranged, the imperial beds and cabinets, one of which was called Pushkinsky in memory of the poet who wrote about the "Yar" on Kuznetsky:
"Who does not remember the famous Yar with his soup and Ia Lortue from the calf head, which did not mind the taste of real turtle; with his bifstex, with truffles, with his partridges fried en Perigord, in which again truffles were more than meat; with his Chickens in January, with fresh beans, with his kropadines from young books, steam breams and, finally, with his Matlot of sterling? " - mentioned in the magazine "Moskvatikan" in 1858.
In 1876, the merchant Karzinkin bought Testair Gurina, located at the very beginning of the Tverskaya Street, on the corner of the Resurrection Square, broke it, built a huge house and amounted to the "partnership of a large Moscow hotel," the luxury rooms and a hundred magnificent rooms were found in it. In 1878, the first half of the hotel opened.
"The chandeliers bloom in the big Moscow, the string music bloats, and so he throwing a fur coat into the hands of the Swiss, wiping the wet wet from the snow, habitually, cheerfully enters the red carpet into the heated crowded, in a story, in the smell of dishes and cigarette, In the vanity of Lakeev and all covering, then the slit and languid, then the stormy string waves, "wrote I. Bunin.
The hotel was broken in the 1930s. and built in her place a hotel "Moscow" on the project of architects L. Savelyov and O. Strapran, improved later academician architecture A.V. Shushev.
Thanks to the advantages of architecture and internal interiors of Moscow, it has always been one of the most prestigious Moscow hotels. At different times, the hotel attended the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, Nobel Laureate Frederick Jolio-Curie, the actors Sophie Loren, Marchello Masthani, Robert de Niro and many others.
Tavern Egorova and Branknaya Voronina
The historical appearance of the Okhotny Row has changed. In previous years, the Okhotny row was built up on one side by old houses, and on the other - a long one-storey building under one roof.
Of all the buildings, only two houses were residents: the house, where the hotel "Continental", yes standing next to him the Tractor of the Old Believers S.S. Egorova, famous for its pancakes (at the Okhotny Row, D.№4).
Tavern S.Gorov was famous for magnificent Russian cuisine, a variety of tea varieties. For tea party, a special room decorated in Chinese style was assigned. The tavern was known for the fact that in it, they served tea "with an alimon" and "with a towel".
If the visitor expressed the desire to drink tea "with Alimon," he was served two glasses of tea with sugar and lemon. If he demanded tea "with a towel", he was served a tea cup, a kettle with boiling water and another, small, for tea brewing, as well as a towel that visitor hang out on her neck.
After he dragged the first kettle with a boiling water, wiping his forehead and neck with a towel, he was served by the second, third, etc. Some Mother merchants, lovers of tea, drank several teapots in one sitting, and the towel became wet from sweat.
On the first floor of Testair Egorova was a pancake Voronin, which was very popular thanks to the special ("Voroninsky") pancakes. Tavern Egorova once belonged to Voronin, and therefore the crow was depicted on the sign, holding damn in the beak.
In the restaurant Egorova, it was forbidden to smoke, strictly observed on benchmarks, each Saturday the owner handed over alms. This tavern is described by I.A. Bunin in the story "Clean Monday".
In 1902, the Tavern moved to the son-in-law of the owner - S.S. Udin-Egorov, who turned the old restaurant in a first-class restaurant.
Writer Ivan Schmelev recalled how the mountains were sent before the trip to the Vorobyev Mountains "to Egorov to take on the note, which for a felling it is necessary: cheese, sausages with tongue, baliper, hard cucumbers, marmalads, lympresses ..."
"Mint", "At Arsentevich", "Pigeon" and other famous Tractors of Moscow
The rear doors of the shops of the Okhotny row went to a huge courtyard - the monetary, as he was called ancient. It had one-story meat, animal and egg benches, and in the midst of a two-storey "mint" restaurant. In the future, the territory of the former coin court took the Moscow Hotel.
Famous establishments in Moscow were also "Kolomna" on Nellin. Tavern "At Arsentich" (Mikhail Arsentievich Arsenyev) was famous for ham and white fish, located in a large Cherkasy alley on the spot. 15; Now there is a restaurant "At Arsentich".
In Basmannaya Rayna, a restaurant "Razgulia" was located (the Kabak appeared here at the end of the XVII century, and the "state-called pee-called house called on rampage" was opened in 1757 and existed until the 1860s.).
Famous restaurants "U Lopashov", "U Bubnova", "Uney Capkova", "Pigeon" (at the corner of isogenic and the 1st Zatsyvsky) were famous. In "Golubny" V. Shustov, then I.E. Krasovsky from the 1860s. Until 1914 gathered lovers of pigeons and cocks.
Street of Ostozhenka, Barricades, In the background Tavern "Pigeon"
The restaurants responded to the interests of the groups - there was a restaurant of "writers with Nikolskaya", Taucher Shcherbakov, beloved by actors, and others. The Bell Tavern on Sretenka was a favorite meeting place for the painters worked on the churches.
Tavern (now restaurant) "Prague"
Tavern "Prague" on the old Arbat.
Existing from the 1870s. Reminded Tractor "Prague" on Arbatskaya Square was rebuilt in 1896 in a fashionable restaurant. The new owner energetically undertook to work, turning a casual restaurant in a first-class restaurant for a "clean" public, primarily intelligentsia.
He was touched and expanded the building, and in 1914, it struck something like a summer garden on the roof, decorated numerous halls and cabins with a wall painting, mirrors, stucco and bronze. The restaurant began to invite the best gypsy ensembles, famous performers.
As the current owners of the enterprise are expressed, "its advantageous location quickly appreciated the enterprising merchant Semen Tararykin, which argued that the building overlooking two central streets could bring a considerable income"; As a result of "Prague" turned "into one of the centers of the cultural life of Moscow."
Naturally, the cabings somehow have no longer attended to visit it. After 1917, Prague was, naturally, nationalized, for some time her sign was removed: what can be restaurants during military communism! In the 20s, the highest dramatic courses were placed here, as well as bookstores "Bukinist", "Book business" and "Word".
In one of the halls on the second floor, a library worked for many years. In 1924, a publicly available dining room Mosselprom was opened here. Mayakovsky wrote about her:
Health is joy, higher benefit,
In the Mososelprom dining room - the former "Prague".
Tambouro, purely, light and cozy,
Lunches are delicious and beer sitting!
From the mid-30s for Prague, confused times came again. The fact is that a quiet cozy Arbat unexpectedly acquired the unlawful status of the "government" street, the "military-Georgian road". He joined the Kremlin with the neighbor, Kuntsevskaya, Dacha Stalin.
They began to check and recheck all residents of the houses, the windows of which went outside. I did not inspire confidence forced to change either in general to leave Moscow. If guests came to Arbatz or even for one night he had a familiar or relative, the owner was obliged under the fear of the most severe repression, up to eviction, report this to his manager.
Only in 1954, after a thorough reconstruction, re-opened the doors of the Prague restaurant. In the Soviet times "Prague" became one of the largest and prestigious restaurants in the capital. For the inhaled luxury of Soviet people, even the only visit to this restaurant was unforgettable for the whole life.
In August 1997, the solemn opening of the updated "Prague" took place at Arbatskaya Square. Today, the menu "Prague" - the true pleasure for gourmets, with a pig, sterling, sturgeon ...
About assortment in Moscow taverns
In the restaurants of the last century, tea, coffee and smoking tobacco were served, grape wines, rum, cognac, liqueurs, punch, bread vodka, made on vodka plants, rum and vodka on the manner of French, honey, beer, filling, tincture.
"There are several thin glasses and three crystal ramps with multi-colored vodka. All these items were placed on a small marble table, cozy joining a huge carved oak buffet, extinguishing bundles of glass and silver light, "wrote Mikhail Bulgakov.
In Russia, sweet tinctures appeared in the 17th century. In the houses became fashionable to keep the "bar", where drinks were located with different flavors - the tinctures of anise, pepper, caalgana, rowan, all do not list. Someone calculated that Russia in a variety of tinctures and emphasis once at ten overtook everything together, the rest of the countries.
If the pride of the Italians or French has always been wines, then in addition to vodka in the national piggy bank, many drinks prepared from a variety of fruits and berries, beverages, where the degree is just not the main thing, but just an aid to identify taste. Calm and called Russian lyters. They contain many extractive substances and sugars.
Usually in large bottles or banks put berries, covered with a layer of sand and give it. After a while, ready-made juice is mixed with vodka or alcohol, transfused into beautiful bottles - the battery is ready in the sugar tinctures noticeably less, but above the fortress, since the extraction occurs under the action of alcohol.
In order for such extraction, the fruits or their parts are immediately poured with alcohol either by vodka, and the role of sugar is rather in mitigating taste. With the help of alcohol from plants "stretch" and those substances are not soluble in water and many of them have biological activity. That is why NEOs have a more complex and rich composition, thanks to which they are widely used in folk and in traditional medicine.
In order for the tincture to be sweetered, fruit-berry juices or sugar syrup are mixed. This also relates their composition with bulk. That's just the empowerment almost completely disappeared from the shelves (liqueurs pushed them), but the tinctures are a large selection. In addition, they are more universal - someone like it, and someone is stronger.
Posted by: Oksana Boychenko
Sources: https: //shagau.ru/2012/12/26/traktiry-moskvy-istoriya-ischez ...
https: //m.fishki.net/3681491-chem-kormili-v-moskovskih-trakt ...